Burke-Litwin Change Model

The Burke-Litwin Change Model is a framework used to understand the various factors that influence organisational change.
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What is the Burke-Litwin Change Model?

The Burke-Litwin Change Model, also known as the Causal Model of Organisational Performance and Change, was developed by organisational theorists George H. Litwin and W. Warner Burke in 1992. This model provides a holistic view of the factors that influence organisational performance and change.

Unlike many other change models that focus solely on individual behaviour or process improvement, the Burke-Litwin Change Model takes into account both the internal and external factors that impact an organisation. It recognises that change is a complex process that involves multiple interconnected elements.

History of the Burke-Litwin Change Model

The development of the Burke-Litwin Change Model was a result of Litwin and Burke’s extensive research on organisational performance. They sought to create a model that would help organisations identify the root causes of performance issues and guide them in implementing effective change strategies.

The model drew inspiration from various fields, including systems theory, psychology, and organisational behaviour. Litwin and Burke combined these insights to create a comprehensive framework that captures the multifaceted nature of organisations and the factors that drive change.

Summary of how the Burke-Litwin Change Model works

The Burke-Litwin Change Model consists of three main components: drivers of change, transformational factors, and transactional factors. These components interact with each other and influence individual and organisational performance.

Input: Drivers of Change

Burke-Litwin Change Model - External Environment

The first component of the Burke-Litwin Change Model is the drivers of change. These are the external and internal forces that create the need for change within an organisation. External drivers can include factors such as market conditions, technological advancements, and regulatory changes. Internal drivers, on the other hand, are factors that originate within the organisation itself, such as leadership transitions or shifts in organisational culture.

External Environment

The external environment is a critical input in the Burke-Litwin Change Model. It refers to the broader economic, social, and political context in which an organisation operates. Understanding the external environment is crucial for organisations to identify potential opportunities and threats that may impact their performance.

For example, a retail company operating in a highly competitive market would need to closely monitor changes in consumer preferences, technological advancements, and regulatory requirements. By staying attuned to the external environment, the company can proactively adapt its strategies and operations to stay ahead of the competition and meet evolving customer needs.

The importance of the external environment cannot be overstated. Failure to recognize and respond to changes in the external environment can lead to missed opportunities, loss of market share, and ultimately, organisational decline.

Throughput: Transformational Factors

Burke-Litwin Change Model - Throughput- Transformational Factors

The next component of the model is the transformational factors. These are the elements that are most likely to influence and shape organisational change. They include mission and strategy, leadership, organisation culture, and structure. These factors are considered transformational because they have a significant impact on the overall direction and functioning of the organisation.

1. Mission & Strategy

The mission and strategy of an organisation are fundamental drivers of change. The mission defines the organisation’s purpose and the values it upholds. The strategy outlines how the organisation intends to achieve its mission and fulfil its objectives.

A clear and compelling mission statement can serve as a guiding light for employees, helping them understand the organisation’s purpose and align their efforts accordingly. It provides a sense of direction and helps employees connect their day-to-day work to the broader goals of the organisation.

The strategy, on the other hand, outlines the specific actions and initiatives that the organisation will undertake to achieve its mission. It involves making choices about target markets, product offerings, competitive positioning, and resource allocation.

For example, a technology company with a mission to empower businesses through innovative solutions may develop a strategy that focuses on research and development, customer-centricity, and strategic partnerships. By aligning their mission and strategy, organisations can create a clear roadmap for change and ensure that all efforts are directed towards a common goal.

2. Leadership

Leadership is a critical factor in driving change within an organisation. Effective leaders set the tone and provide the vision and direction necessary to navigate change successfully.

Leadership encompasses both formal and informal leaders within the organisation. Formal leaders, such as executives and managers, have the authority to make decisions and influence others. Informal leaders, on the other hand, may not hold formal positions of power but have the ability to influence their peers through their expertise, networks, or charismatic personalities.

Effective leaders inspire and motivate their teams, communicate the need for change, and provide support throughout the change process. They create a culture of trust and collaboration, empowering employees to contribute their ideas and take ownership of the change initiatives.

For example, a leader who is skilled at change management may facilitate open and transparent communication, involve employees in decision-making, and provide resources and support to help them navigate the challenges of change. By doing so, they can create an environment that embraces change and fosters innovation and growth.

3. Organisation Culture

Organisation culture refers to the shared values, beliefs, norms, and practices that shape the behavior and mindset of individuals within an organisation. It is often described as the “way things are done around here.”

Culture plays a crucial role in driving change because it influences how individuals and groups within the organisation perceive and respond to change initiatives. A strong and positive culture can provide a solid foundation for change, as employees are more likely to embrace new ideas and ways of working.

On the other hand, a negative or resistant culture can create barriers to change. Employees may resist change due to fear, uncertainty, or a perceived threat to their status quo. In such cases, it is essential for leaders to actively manage the culture and create an environment that supports and rewards change.

For example, an organisation with a culture that values continuous learning and improvement would be more likely to embrace change initiatives. Employees would be encouraged to experiment, take risks, and learn from failures, creating a culture of innovation and adaptability.

Throughput: Transactional Factors

Burke-Litwin Change Model - Throughput- Transactional Factors

The third component of the model is the transactional factors. These factors focus on the day-to-day operations and processes within the organisation. They include work unit climate, task requirements, individual skills and abilities, employee motivation, and individual needs and values. While these factors may not have as direct an impact on change as the transformational factors, they play a crucial role in ensuring that change is successfully implemented and sustained.

1. Structure

The structure of an organisation refers to how tasks, roles, and responsibilities are organized and coordinated. It defines the reporting relationships, decision-making processes, and communication channels within the organisation.

The structure can either enable or hinder change. A rigid and hierarchical structure that is resistant to change can create bottlenecks and slow down the implementation of change initiatives. On the other hand, a flexible and decentralised structure can facilitate agility and responsiveness, allowing organisations to adapt quickly to changing circumstances.

For example, a startup company operating in a fast-paced and dynamic industry may adopt a flat organisational structure that promotes collaboration, innovation, and quick decision-making. This structure allows for faster communication and decision-making, enabling the organisation to respond swiftly to changes in the market.

2. Work Unit Climate

Work unit climate refers to the perceptions and attitudes of employees within a specific work unit or team. It reflects the collective experience of individuals within that unit and can have a significant impact on their motivation, engagement, and performance.

A positive work unit climate is characterized by trust, collaboration, open communication, and a sense of belonging. Employees feel supported and valued, and they are more likely to contribute their best efforts towards achieving team and organisational goals.

On the other hand, a negative work unit climate, characterized by conflict, mistrust, and poor communication, can create barriers to change. Employees may be reluctant to embrace change initiatives or may actively resist them due to a lack of trust in their leaders or fear of the unknown.

For example, a work unit with a positive climate may have regular team meetings to discuss progress and challenges, encourage open and honest feedback, and celebrate achievements. This fosters a sense of camaraderie and shared purpose, creating an environment that is conducive to change.

3. Task Requirements and Individual Skills/Abilities

Task requirements and individual skills and abilities refer to the specific demands of the job and the competencies required to perform it effectively. This includes the knowledge, skills, and experience needed to carry out the tasks and responsibilities associated with a particular role.

When implementing change, it is essential to assess whether employees have the necessary skills and abilities to adapt to new ways of working. If there is a significant gap between the required and existing skills, organisations may need to provide training and development opportunities to bridge the gap.

For example, a manufacturing company introducing a new production process would need to assess whether employees have the technical skills and knowledge to operate the new equipment. If not, the company may need to invest in training programs to ensure that employees can perform their tasks effectively.

4. Individual Needs and Values

Individual needs and values refer to the personal aspirations, motivations, and values of employees. Each individual has unique needs and desires that shape their behavior and influence their response to change.

Understanding and addressing these individual needs is crucial for ensuring that change initiatives are successful. Individuals are more likely to embrace change if they perceive it as aligned with their personal goals and values.

For example, an employee who values work-life balance may be more receptive to flexible work arrangements introduced as part of a change initiative. By recognising and accommodating individual needs and values, organisations can create an environment that supports and motivates employees during times of change.

5. Employee Motivation

Employee motivation plays a critical role in driving change. Motivated employees are more likely to embrace change, adapt quickly, and contribute their best efforts towards achieving organisational goals.

Motivation can be intrinsic, arising from within the individual, or extrinsic, influenced by external factors such as rewards or recognition. Both types of motivation are important and can be leveraged to drive change.

For example, an organisation may use a combination of intrinsic and extrinsic motivators to encourage employees to adopt new technologies. Intrinsic motivators, such as providing opportunities for learning and growth, can help employees see the value of the change and the potential for personal development. Extrinsic motivators, such as performance-based bonuses, can provide an additional incentive for employees to embrace the change.

Output: Individual and Organisational Performance

Burke-Litwin Change Model - Output- Organisational Performance

The ultimate outcome of the Burke-Litwin Change Model is improved individual and organisational performance. By addressing the drivers of change and effectively managing the transformational and transactional factors, organisations can create an environment that fosters growth, innovation, and success.

Applying the Burke-Litwin Change Model

  1. Identify the drivers of change: Start by understanding the external and internal factors that are creating the need for change within your organisation. This could include changes in the market, industry trends, or internal challenges.
  2. Assess the transformational factors: Evaluate the key elements that shape your organisation’s direction and functioning. This includes mission and strategy, leadership, organisation culture, and structure. Identify areas that may need to be adjusted or aligned with the desired change.
  3. Evaluate the transactional factors: Consider the day-to-day operations and processes within your organisation. Assess factors such as work unit climate, task requirements, individual skills and abilities, individual needs and values, and employee motivation. Determine how these factors may impact the successful implementation of change.
  4. Develop a change strategy: Based on your assessment, develop a comprehensive change strategy that addresses the identified areas for improvement. This should include specific actions and initiatives to be undertaken, as well as a plan for communicating and engaging employees throughout the change process.
  5. Implement the change: Execute your change strategy, ensuring that adequate resources and support are provided. Communicate the rationale for change and the expected benefits to employees, and provide training and development opportunities as needed.
  6. Monitor and evaluate progress: Continuously monitor the implementation of change and evaluate its impact on individual and organisational performance. Make adjustments as necessary to ensure that the desired outcomes are achieved.

Limitations of the Burke-Litwin Change Model

While the Burke-Litwin Change Model provides a comprehensive framework for understanding and managing change, it is important to recognize its limitations.

First, the model assumes a linear and sequential process of change. In reality, change is often messy and nonlinear, with multiple factors influencing each other simultaneously. Organisations need to be flexible and adaptable in their approach to change, recognising that it may not always follow a predictable path.

Second, the model does not explicitly address the role of stakeholders in the change process. Stakeholders, such as employees, customers, and suppliers, can have a significant impact on the success of change initiatives. Organisations need to engage and involve stakeholders throughout the change process to ensure their support and buy-in.


The Burke-Litwin Change Model provides organisations with a comprehensive framework for understanding and managing change. By addressing the drivers of change and effectively managing the transformational and transactional factors, organisations can create an environment that fosters growth, innovation, and success.

However, it is important to recognize that change is a complex and ongoing process. Organisations need to be flexible, adaptable, and responsive to the dynamic nature of change. By doing so, they can navigate the challenges of change and drive sustainable success.

CTA: Ready to drive change in your organisation? Implement the Burke-Litwin Change Model and unlock the potential for growth and success. Start by identifying the drivers of change and assessing the transformational and transactional factors within your organisation. Develop a comprehensive change strategy and engage your employees throughout the process. Remember, change starts from within. Embrace it, and watch your organisation thrive.

Burke-Litwin Change Model Template

Use this template as a starting point for exploring the Burke-Litwin Change Model.

Burke-Litwin Change Model


 James Freeman-Gray 

I'm James. A change consultant and organisational development specialist. I've been working in people-centred change for over 15 years. I partner with causes, champions, teams & leaders on projects for social, environmental, technological & human good. If you think I can support in making your change a success, drop me a message. 

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